10.5. Creating separate handlers by node type

The third useful XML processing tip involves separating your code into logical functions, based on node types and element names. Parsed XML documents are made up of various types of nodes, each represented by a Python object. The root level of the document itself is represented by a Document object. The Document then contains one or more Element objects (for actual XML tags), each of which may contain other Element objects, Text objects (for bits of text), or Comment objects (for embedded comments). Python makes it easy to write a dispatcher to separate the logic for each node type.

Example 10.17. Class names of parsed XML objects

>>> from xml.dom import minidom
>>> xmldoc = minidom.parse('kant.xml') 1
>>> xmldoc
<xml.dom.minidom.Document instance at 0x01359DE8>
>>> xmldoc.__class__                   2
<class xml.dom.minidom.Document at 0x01105D40>
>>> xmldoc.__class__.__name__          3
1 Assume for a moment that kant.xml is in the current directory.
2 As you saw in Section 9.2, “Packages”, the object returned by parsing an XML document is a Document object, as defined in the minidom.py in the xml.dom package. As you saw in Section 5.4, “Instantiating Classes”, __class__ is built-in attribute of every Python object.
3 Furthermore, __name__ is a built-in attribute of every Python class, and it is a string. This string is not mysterious; it's the same as the class name you type when you define a class yourself. (See Section 5.3, “Defining Classes”.)

Fine, so now you can get the class name of any particular XML node (since each XML node is represented as a Python object). How can you use this to your advantage to separate the logic of parsing each node type? The answer is getattr, which you first saw in Section 4.4, “Getting Object References With getattr”.

Example 10.18. parse, a generic XML node dispatcher

    def parse(self, node):          
        parseMethod = getattr(self, "parse_%s" % node.__class__.__name__) 1 2
        parseMethod(node) 3
1 First off, notice that you're constructing a larger string based on the class name of the node you were passed (in the node argument). So if you're passed a Document node, you're constructing the string 'parse_Document', and so forth.
2 Now you can treat that string as a function name, and get a reference to the function itself using getattr
3 Finally, you can call that function and pass the node itself as an argument. The next example shows the definitions of each of these functions.

Example 10.19. Functions called by the parse dispatcher

    def parse_Document(self, node): 1
    def parse_Text(self, node):    2
        text = node.data
        if self.capitalizeNextWord:
            self.capitalizeNextWord = 0
    def parse_Comment(self, node): 3
    def parse_Element(self, node): 4
        handlerMethod = getattr(self, "do_%s" % node.tagName)
1 parse_Document is only ever called once, since there is only one Document node in an XML document, and only one Document object in the parsed XML representation. It simply turns around and parses the root element of the grammar file.
2 parse_Text is called on nodes that represent bits of text. The function itself does some special processing to handle automatic capitalization of the first word of a sentence, but otherwise simply appends the represented text to a list.
3 parse_Comment is just a pass, since you don't care about embedded comments in the grammar files. Note, however, that you still need to define the function and explicitly make it do nothing. If the function did not exist, the generic parse function would fail as soon as it stumbled on a comment, because it would try to find the non-existent parse_Comment function. Defining a separate function for every node type, even ones you don't use, allows the generic parse function to stay simple and dumb.
4 The parse_Element method is actually itself a dispatcher, based on the name of the element's tag. The basic idea is the same: take what distinguishes elements from each other (their tag names) and dispatch to a separate function for each of them. You construct a string like 'do_xref' (for an <xref> tag), find a function of that name, and call it. And so forth for each of the other tag names that might be found in the course of parsing a grammar file (<p> tags, <choice> tags).

In this example, the dispatch functions parse and parse_Element simply find other methods in the same class. If your processing is very complex (or you have many different tag names), you could break up your code into separate modules, and use dynamic importing to import each module and call whatever functions you needed. Dynamic importing will be discussed in Chapter 16, Functional Programming.